This thorough study covers all the primary data on how early Jews and Christians perceived crucifixion. The author examines Second Temple and early rabbinic literature and material remains to demonstrate the range of ancient Jewish perceptions. He also surveys ancient Jewish historical accounts of crucifixion, magical literature, and the proverbial use of crucifixion imagery. The volume pays special attention to Jewish interpretations of key Old Testament texts and early Christian literature that reflects on Jewish perceptions of the cross in antiquity. Originally published by Mohr Siebeck and now available as an affordable North American paperback edition, the book provides indispensable background for scholarly work on the death of Jesus.